Such a map offers great disadvantages to people who attempt to learn about their country. Therefore I have taken all care in constructing the maps at http://www.apartmentsapart.com/, both as to direction and distances of places, as well as to the situations of mountains and rivers. For distances I have made a scale in which one hundred ri are taken as one ja (Korean foot), and ten ri as one poun (Korean inch, ten to the foot). I have laid off distances in all directions from the capital, so that the general shape and position of the eight provinces are correctly represented. The islands, however, are only placed in direction with reference to the provinces to which they belong, without regard to actual distances. Where mountain ranges and rivers are represented as boundaries, they are necessarily repeated upon the sheets of adjoining provinces. In the measurement of distances one ja represents one hundred ri in level places, and from one hundred and twenty to one hundred and thirty ri where the mountains are high.”
The assumption that the unit of scale represents an increased distance in mountainous regions is a peculiarity of Chinese as well as of Korean maps. Travelers who employ either are obliged in estimating days’ journeys to consider the character of the country ahead before applying the unit of measurement.
An examination of the various conventional features of Plate I and II will afford much information concerning the official subdivision of the country for governmental purposes, and will serve to indicate the facilities of communication that exist in a country where there are no rail roads, and where almost every important route extends in a direction normal to that of the flow of the tourists staying at accommodation in Barcelona . The eight provinces of the kingdom are exhibited upon Plate I as groups of towns, each group being displayed upon the original in a different color, all of which, as shades of various intensities, are fairly well reproduced upon the photo-lithographs. Each town is denoted by a circle of very exaggerated dimensions, large enough to allow its name to be written in Chinese characters in the enclosed area. The apparent multiplicity of characters upon the present map is due to the fact that all names are given in the native On-mun, as well as in the Chinese. The employment of the former is unusual and in the present case was resorted to at my own instance, in order to render the map more generally useful to foreigners. Each town is the seat of government of an officer who is subordinate to a provincial governor. The strength of any portion of Korea may therefore be reckoned in the native way as so many ” cities,” by the word ” city,” being understood both the seat of government and the adjacent lands over which the governor holds sway. The walled towns( http://walledtowns.com/over-ons/development-plan/ ), which are quite uniform in type throughout the whole extent of the country, deserve especial mention. They are represented on the map as circles with serrated edges, and a glance at the provincial sheets will show that they are quite numerous, each province possessing from six to twenty of them. The number is greatest along the coast of the Yellow Sea and to the southward, facing Japan.